FANDOM


[r] | [rf] | [ž] | [f] | [q]
120px-LogoWIKISPECIES01 lot. Larus fuscus
Larus-fuscus-taxbox
Larus fuscus
Apsaugos būklė

Silkinis kiras - Larus fuscus Linnaeus, 1758, chordinių (Chordata) tipo (Aves) klasės (Charadriiformes) būrio (Laridae) šeimos (Larus) genties rūšis.

Išvaizda Redaguoti

[ k ]

Biologija Redaguoti

Mityba Redaguoti

Paplitimas Redaguoti


Porūšiai Redaguoti

  1.  ? Larus fuscus fuscus Linnaeus, 1758
  2.  ? Larus fuscus graellsii Brehm, 1857
  3.  ? Larus fuscus intermedius Schiôler, 1922

Literatūra Redaguoti

  • WoRMS (2011). Larus fuscus Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=137142 on 2011-02-19
  • ITIS database Žr.
  • Cattrijsse, A.; Vincx, M. (2001). Biodiversity of the benthos and the avifauna of the Belgian coastal waters: summary of data collected between 1970 and 1998. Sustainable Management of the North Sea. Federal Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs: Brussel, Belgium. 48 pp. Žr.
  • van der Land, J. (2001). Tetrapoda, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 375-376 Žr.
  • Banks, R.C., R.W. McDiarmid, and A.L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Resource Publication No. 166. 79 p. Žr.
  • Field Guide to Birds of North America 1983 Žr.
  • Grand Manan Whale and Seabird Research Station. Žr.
  • Peterson, R.T. and V.M. Peterson. 2002. A field guide to the birds of eastern and central North America. Fifth Edition. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Company. New York. 427 p. Žr.
  • Squires, H.J. 1990. Decapod Crustacea of the Atlantic coast of Canada. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 221. 532 p. Žr.
  • Urban, E.K., C.H. Fry & S. Keith (1986). The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London. Žr.
  • Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp. Žr.
  • Vanderperren, J.-P. (1991). Report Natural History Archive 1990 [Verslag Natuurhistorisch Archief 1990]. De Strandvlo 11(3): 65-75 Žr.
  • Gallardo, J. C., V. Macías, and E. Velarde. 2009. Birds (Vertebrata: Aves) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 1321–1342 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas. Žr.
  • Larus fuscus. BirdLife International (2011) The BirdLife checklist of the birds of the world, with conservation status and taxonomic sources. Version 4. Additional information on this species.
  • 2011 IUCN Red List. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • AERC TAC (2003) AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Association of European Rarities Committees.
  • AOU (1998 + supplements) Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union.
  • Christidis, L. and Boles, W. E. (2008) Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.
  • Cramp, S. and Perrins, C. M. (1977-1994) Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Dowsett, R. J. and Forbes-Watson, A. D. (1993) Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Liège, Belgium: Tauraco Press.
  • SACC (2006 + updates) A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union.
  • Sibley, C. G. and Monroe, B. L. (1990) Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. New Haven, USA: Yale University Press.
  • Stotz, D. F., Fitzpatrick, J. W., Parker, T. A. and Moskovits, D. K. (1996) Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • "Larus cachinnans (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into L. cachinnans and L. michahellis; L. armenicus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993; AERC TAC) has been lumped into L. michahellis. These changes to the BirdLife checklist follow examination by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group (BTWG) of a recent review of large white-headed gulls in the Holarctic by Collinson et al. (2008) and associated literature referred to therein. The following species level treatment, shown with subspecific placements, has been adopted by the BTWG: L. fuscus (with intermedius, graellsii, heuglini, taimyrensis and barabensis); L. argentatus (with argenteus, smithsonianus, vegae and mongolicus); L. michahellis (with atlantis and armenicus) and L. cachinnans. This treatment is based on evidence of sympatry, and morphological and behavioural differences, but rejects further splits derived from phylogentic analyses based on mtDNA because Collinson et al. (2008) admit that (1) mtDNA lineages can disappear by random events, resulting in misplacements and displacements in phylogenies, and (2) hybridisation, which seems very widespread in these white-headed gulls, can result in ""adoption"" of mtDNA sequences by another taxon, completely obscuring the real situation. Collinson et al. (2008) explicitly state ""these complications do not just make gull phylogenies difficult: they may cause entirely false conclusions to be drawn about species boundaries… it must be recognised that splits or lumps based solely on mtDNA cannot be regarded as robust"". While proposed splits not adopted here are not based solely on mtDNA, the morphological evidence presented is not conclusive, taxa are only diagnosable in some cases and there is hybridisation between them."

Nuorodos Redaguoti

Sinonimai Redaguoti

Sistematika Redaguoti

  dar 18 šeimų   dar 49 rūšys  
         
  Būrys
Sėjikiniai paukščiai
(Charadriiformes)
    Gentis
Tikrieji kirai
(Larus)
   
              2 porūšiai
  Klasė
Paukščiai
(Aves)
    Šeima
Kiriniai
(Laridae)
    Rūšis
Silkinis kiras
(Larus fuscus)
 
           
  dar 27 būriai   dar 13 genčių  
     

Išnašos Redaguoti

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.