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120px-LogoWIKISPECIES01 lot. Larus cachinnans
Larus michahellis-jung (corr)
Larus cachinnans
Apsaugos būklė

? Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811, chordinių (Chordata) tipo (Aves) klasės (Charadriiformes) būrio (Laridae) šeimos (Larus) genties rūšis.

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  • WoRMS (2010). Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2011-02-19
  • Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, 2 p.318
  • Cattrijsse, A.; Vincx, M. (2001). Biodiversity of the benthos and the avifauna of the Belgian coastal waters: summary of data collected between 1970 and 1998. Sustainable Management of the North Sea. Federal Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs: Brussel, Belgium. 48 pp. Žr.
  • van der Land, J. (2001). Tetrapoda, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 375-376 Žr.
  • Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp. Žr.
  • Larus cachinnans. BirdLife International (2011) The BirdLife checklist of the birds of the world, with conservation status and taxonomic sources. Version 4. Additional information on this species.
  • 2011 IUCN Red List. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • AERC TAC (2003) AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Association of European Rarities Committees.
  • "Larus cachinnans (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into L. cachinnans and L. michahellis; L. armenicus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993; AERC TAC) has been lumped into L. michahellis. These changes to the BirdLife checklist follow examination by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group (BTWG) of a recent review of large white-headed gulls in the Holarctic by Collinson et al. (2008) and associated literature referred to therein. The following species level treatment, shown with subspecific placements, has been adopted by the BTWG: L. fuscus (with intermedius, graellsii, heuglini, taimyrensis and barabensis); L. argentatus (with argenteus, smithsonianus, vegae and mongolicus); L. michahellis (with atlantis and armenicus) and L. cachinnans. This treatment is based on evidence of sympatry, and morphological and behavioural differences, but rejects further splits derived from phylogentic analyses based on mtDNA because Collinson et al. (2008) admit that (1) mtDNA lineages can disappear by random events, resulting in misplacements and displacements in phylogenies, and (2) hybridisation, which seems very widespread in these white-headed gulls, can result in ""adoption"" of mtDNA sequences by another taxon, completely obscuring the real situation. Collinson et al. (2008) explicitly state ""these complications do not just make gull phylogenies difficult: they may cause entirely false conclusions to be drawn about species boundaries… it must be recognised that splits or lumps based solely on mtDNA cannot be regarded as robust"". While proposed splits not adopted here are not based solely on mtDNA, the morphological evidence presented is not conclusive, taxa are only diagnosable in some cases and there is hybridisation between them."

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